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"ATR activation in response to ionizing radiation: still ATM territory"
Myriam Cuadrado; Barbara Martinez-Pastor; Oscar Fernandez-Capetillo
Cell Division,1,1(2006-05-17)


Unrepaired DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are a major cause for genomic instability. Therefore, upon detection of a DSB a rapid response must be assembled to coordinate the proper repair/signaling of the lesion or the elimination of cells with unsustainable amounts of DNA damage. Three members of the PIKK family of protein kinases -ATM, ATR and DNA-PKcs- take the lead and initiate the signaling cascade emanating from DSB sites. Whereas DNA-PKcs activity seems to be restricted to the phosphorylation of targets involved in DNA repair, ATM and ATR phosphorylate a broad spectrum of cell cycle regulators and DNA repair proteins. In the canonical model, ATM and ATR are activated by two different types of lesions and signal through two independent and alternate pathways. Specifically, ATR is activated by various forms of DNA damage, including DSBs, arising at stalled replication forks ("replication stress"), and ATM is responsible for the signaling of DSBs that are not associated with the replication machinery throughout the cell cycle. Recent evidence suggests that this model might be oversimplified and that coordinated crosstalk between ATM and ATR activation routes goes on at the core of the DNA damage response.

出版者:BioMed Central Ltd
学科分类:Molecular Biology,Cellular Biology and Genetics

推荐引用方式:Myriam Cuadrado,Barbara Martinez-Pastor,Oscar Fernandez-Capetillo. "ATR activation in response to ionizing radiation: still ATM territory"[J]. Cell Division,2006,1(1)

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